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5G - Carbon & Sulphur/Metallurgical Balance

Total carbon and sulphur are determined on an ELTRA CS 2000 Carbon Sulphur Analyzer. A weighed sample is mixed with iron chips and a tungsten accelerator and is then combusted in an oxygen atmosphere at 1370 °C. The moisture and dust are removed and the CO2 gas and SO2 gas are measured by a solid-state infrared detector.

0.2 g sample is thermally decomposed in a resistance furnace in a pure nitrogen environment at 1000  ° C, using an ELTRA CW-800, directly releasing CO 2 . H 2 O is removed in a moisture trap prior to the detection of  carbon dioxide in the IR cell. Carbon dioxide absorbs IR energy at a precise wavelength within the IR spectrum. Energy from the IR source is absorbed as the gas passes through the cell, preventing it from reaching the IR detector. All other IR energy is prevented from reaching the IR detector by a narrow bandpass filter. Because of the filter, the absorption of IR energy can be attributed only to carbon dioxide (CO2). The concentration of COis detected as a reduction in the level of energy at the detector.

A separate sample is ignited at 600 °C in order to drive off the CO2 and the organic carbon. The remaining C is graphitic carbon which is analyzed as above.

Organic carbon is determined by difference after subtracting the above species.

Sulphide sulphur is determined by calculating remaining sulphur after sulphate sulphur is subtracted from total sulphur.  Sulphate sulphur is determined by roasting at 850°C to drive off the sulphide sulphur with analysis of the sulphur in the roast residue. This is converted to sulphate by calculation.


Code 5G (Carbon & Sulphur /Metallurgical Balance Package) 

Elements and Detection Limits (%)




C – Total


C – Graphitic


C – Organic


CO 2


S – Total


SO 4


Activation Laboratories Ltd. | 41 Bittern Street, Ancaster, Ontario, L9G 4V5, Canada | TF: +1.888.228.5227
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